Relationship away from urinary salt and potassium removal with systolic hypertension throughout the Weight reduction Methods to Stop Blood circulation pressure Sodium Demo

Relationship away from urinary salt and potassium removal with systolic hypertension throughout the Weight reduction Methods to Stop Blood circulation pressure Sodium Demo

The 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering and Medicine Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) for Sodium (Na + ) and Potassium (K + ) Report concluded there remains insufficient evidence to establish a K + DRI. This study tested the hypothesis that reduced Na + and increased K + excretion will positively associate with lower blood pressure in salt sensitive (SS) and salt resistant (SR) participants in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Sodium Trial (DASH–Sodium). Via the NHLBI BioLINCC we accessed the DASH-Sodium dataset for data on systolic blood pressure (SBP), 24-h urinary Na + and K + excretion at screening (regular patient diet; N = 186, SS N = 222 SR) and post DASH diet (N = 71 SS, N = 119 SR). The relationships between SBP, urinary Na + and K + excretion, and Na + /K + ratio were assessed via linear regression. At screening elevated urinary Na + excretion positively associated with SBP in SS (1 g increase in urinary Na + excretion = +1 0 ± 0.4 mmHg) but not SR participants, and urinary K + excretion of <1 g K + /day was associated with higher SBP in SS and SR participants. Urinary K + excretion ?1 g/day, or a decreases in urinary Na + /K + ratio, was not associated with lower SBP. Post the DASH–sodium diet intervention, SBP was reduced in SS and SR participants. However, no correlation was observed between reduced SBP and urinary K + excretion or the urinary Na + /K + ratio irrespective of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure. Our data support the DRI recommendation not to establish a K + DRI and suggest further evidence is required to support a reduced Na + /K + ratio to lower SBP.


Blood circulation pressure, typically the most popular non-communicable disease around the world, represents a critical around the globe societal health issue. In accordance with the 2017 Western Cardio Association (AHA) direction, the new incidence out of blood pressure among us adults was estimated become 46% ; at exactly the same time,

Association of urinary sodium and you will potassium removal which have systolic blood circulation pressure on the Slimming down Ways to Prevent Blood pressure level Salt Trial

50% out-of hypertensive individuals are projected to be sodium sensitive (SS) . Since detailed by National Center for Chronic Situation Prevention and you can Fitness Strategy declaration

90% out-of Western adults consume an excessive amount of diet sodium (Na + ), with the average each and every day practices exceeding 3400 mg inside the mature Us people, a value almost 3 x the fresh each day application recommended of the AHA together with Federal Academy of Technology, Systems, and you may Medication Losing weight Resource Consumption (DRI) . Due to the fact continuously dieting Na + consumption, that may push the fresh new salt sensitiveness regarding hypertension and increase blood circulation pressure chance, international fat loss Na + intake was a community health chance. The latest effect out of fat reduction Na + intake on the hypertension could have been investigated during the multiple weight loss input trials generating proof one quicker dietary sodium intake inside the regulated configurations results in decrease in the blood pressure [six,seven,8]. Then, meta-analyses has actually correlated weight loss Na + limit which have reductions inside blood pressure indicating there is a health work for both in normotensive and you will hypertensive somebody despite this new sodium susceptibility off hypertension [9, 10].

Recent evidence suggests the salt sensitivity of blood pressure may be modulated, in part, by dietary potassium (K + ) intake. Increasing dietary K + intake appears to counteract the effects of dietary Na + intake on increasing blood pressure [11,12,13]. Despite several studies that have documented blood pressure lowering effects of increasing K + intake, the 2019 National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine DRI for sodium and potassium Report did not establish a DRI for K + . This report concluded that more evidence is required to support a DRI of K + with particular reference to a lack of K + dose-response trials limiting the evidence to establish a K + DRI . Several studies have reported that the urinary Na + :K + ratio has a stronger association with blood pressure than Na + or K + independently [14, 15]. Largely based on these data, a urinary Na + to K + molar ratio of <1 has been recommended [16, 17] as a beneficial target to improve long-term blood pressure control. Given the high global dietary Na + intake this would necessitate dietary, or other means, of K + supplementation-for which a DRI has not been established . A leading dietary intervention study was the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension 2 Trial (DASH-Sodium) conducted between 1997 and 2002 . The DASH-Sodium trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial that examined the impact of three levels dietary Na + intake in combination with either a control or DASH diet (rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in total fat) on blood pressure. This study demonstrated substantial effects of dietary Na + reduction and the DASH diet on reducing blood pressure, with more significant blood pressure lowering effects with the combination of a DASH diet plus dietary Na + reduction than dietary Na + restriction alone in individuals with higher than optimal blood pressure . Given that the DASH diet intervention elevated dietary K + intake by increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables in combination with modifying daily dietary Na + intake, examining the potential interaction between dietary Na + and K + intake on blood pressure in the DASH trial will provide valuable insight into the potential influence of dietary K + on blood pressure.